Gerson Digital : Poland


3.3 Daniel Schultz and Andreas Stech

However, the works of the Danzig painter Daniel Schultz (c. 1615-1683), who alternated between working in Poland and Danzig, are almost astonishingly Dutch [1]. He received his first instruction from his uncle, Daniel Schultz (†1646), who had done some manneristically conceived pictures for Ladislaus IV.1 Schultz was probably in the Northern Netherlands in the late forties to study superior painting at its source. An early drawing, Apollo and the Muses [2] (the ostensibly fragmentary state of which has had scholars wracking their brains unnecessarily), is nothing other than a copy of an engraving by Hendrick Goltzius [3].2 However, he need not have travelled to the Northern Netherlands to become acquainted with Goltzius’ print!

Daniel Schultz
Portrait of a young man, possibly a self-portrait of Daniel Schultz (1615-1683), second half 1640s
canvas, oil paint 57 x 49.5 cm
on the back, lower right : D. Schultz f.
Warsaw, Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie, inv./ MP 2447 (d. 233128)

Daniel Schultz after Hendrick Goltzius
The judgement of Midas in the contest between Apollo and Pan, c. 1630-1649
paper, pen (technique), brush in color (water color) 404 x 523 mm
: D. Schultz
Gdańsk, Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku

Hendrick Goltzius
The judgement of Midas in the contest between Apollo and Pan, 1590 (dated)
paper, copper engraving (printing process) 423 x 679 mm
lower left : Anno 1590
Amsterdam, Rijksprentenkabinet, inv./ RP-P-OB-10.404

Schultz’s portraits of Danzig burghers show him at the height of his powers. His Portrait of Constantia von Holten (Danzig) [4], which dates from the 1670s, still shows the sober, relaxed pose that we know from the Rembrandt School, though of course the execution reveals that the painter belonged to the generation of Bartholomeus van der Helst and Caspar Netscher.3 A family portrait of a Tartar nobleman, painted around 1655 (Zarskoje-Selo) [5],4 is even closer in execution to the Rembrandt School, Jan Victors in this instance. Thanks to his thorough Dutch schooling, Schultz excelled over all of his Danzig contemporaries.5

Daniel Schultz or Andreas Stech
Portrait of Constance von Holten Schumann (1638-1680), 1674
panel, oil paint 85 x 77 cm
Gdańsk, Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku, inv./ SD/301/M

Daniel Schultz
Portrait of Dedesh Aga, emissary of the Khan of Crimean Tartars to the court of King John Casimir in Warsaw, with his entourage, 1664 (dated)
canvas, oil paint 166 x 231 cm
lower right : D. Schultz an° 1664
Sint-Petersburg (Russia), Hermitage, inv./ GE-8540

Andreas Stech
Portrait of Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687), dated 1677
canvas, oil paint 125 x 103 cm
lower left : ANNO ALDC LXXVII
Gdańsk, Biblioteka Gdańska PAN (Polska Akademia Nauk), inv./ EM-1

Daniel Schultz
Duck hunt, 1658 (dated)
canvas, oil paint 114 x 116 cm
lower left : D∙S∙f∙ 1658
Gdańsk, Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku, inv./ SD/366/M

In addition to his portraits, to which we add the 1677 Portrait of Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) (Danzig, Municipal Library) as a late example [6] ,6 Schultz created a commissioned altarpiece of 1675 for Saint-Germain-des-Près, where Ladislaus lies buried, as well as battle pieces for his successor, which have been lost.7

The animal still lifes (Schwerin [now Gdańsk, ed.] and Stockholm) [7-9] which have probably rightly been attributed to him, reveal more of a dependence on the Flemings, whereas a bird still life in a Bremen private collection [10] conforms to works by [Elias and Jan] Vonck, Willem van Aelst, or Hendrik de Fromentiou, which enjoyed international recognition.8

The Danzig artist Andreas Stech (c. 1635-1697) continued the Dutch tradition in Danzig.9 As he did not travel abroad, he must have modeled his work on the example of Schultz and other Dutch paintings in Danzig collections. His Self Portrait (Danzig, Stadtmuseum) [11] is again in the style of Rembrandt and may best be compared to works by Jacob Adriaensz. Backer. He probably executed the work before dated portraits of the 70s and 80s, in which a Flemish-French elegance, as we know it from late Maes and Weenix portraits, becomes discernible. In addition, we can determine that the Dutch sobriety and sound painterly conception last longer with Schultz, as well as with Stech, than in the Dutch Republic itself, which was more open to French influence. What we here deem to be of positive value could from another point of view be called provincial backwardness. A good example of Stech’s portraiture is Captain with a Coin (Danzig) [12]. A small masterpiece is Promenade before the Tower of Danzig [13], of which the small-scaled portraits deserve to be compared with Gerard ter Borch the Younger and Thomas de Keyser, while the handling of the Captain is more Rembrantesque, in the sense of Samuel van Hoogstraten.10

Daniel Schultz
Three foxes fighting over a dead pigeon, 1660 (dated)
canvas, oil paint 67 x 94 cm
lower right : 16 IIIIII [1660]
Gdańsk, Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku, inv./ SD/356/M

Daniel Schultz
Woman with a dead hare: Allegory of Autumn, dated 166[.]
canvas, oil paint 136 x 101 cm
right : Daniel Schülz f. 166..
Stockholm, Nationalmuseum Stockholm, inv./ NM 293

Cornelis Lelienbergh
A pigeon and other dead singing birds on a partly draped stone ledge
panel, oil paint ? x ? cm
Private collection

Andreas Stech
Self portrait of Andreas Stech (1625-1697), c. 1675
panel, oil paint 64 x 55 cm
on the back : Andreas Stech. pinx.
Gdańsk, Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku, inv./ SD/364/M

Andreas Stech
Portrait of a young man with a medal, c. 1678-1680
canvas, oil paint 78 x 63 cm
Gdańsk, Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku, inv./ M/549

Andreas Stech
Group of men and boys on a stroll in a landscape with the city of Gdansk in the background, c. 1670
canvas, oil paint 86.2 x 113 cm
lower right : A. Stech f.
Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, inv./ 556

Andreas Stech
Flowers in a sculpted bronze vase on a partly draped ledge, c. 1678-1680
canvas, oil paint 120 x 90 cm
Gdańsk, Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku

Andreas Stech
Flowers in a Delft vase, 1670s
panel, oil paint 69 x 53 cm
on the back : JB
Gdańsk, Muzeum Narodowe w Gdańsku

Andreas Stech
Flowers in a glass vase, c. 1678
canvas, oil paint 63 x 46 cm
Augsburg, Städtische Kunstsammlungen Augsburg

We also know of a few flower pieces by Stech [14-16]. They used to be wrongly attributed to Ottomar Elliger the Elder, which does give a good indication of their style. They are generally more sober and rougher than their models and, once again, one might be inclined to relate them to Dutch developments of a few decades before and to date them earlier. It is nevertheless incorrect to constantly want to compare Danzig painting to Dutch art. The former had its own national character, which favored sober and linear qualities over rich and painterly ones.

Stech also rendered illustrations for the botanical books of Johannes Hevelius [17-18], whose portrait Schultz had painted, and of Jacob Breyn [19].11 It was probably under Stech’s direction that the two daughters of Breyn and Frau Gralath carried out the drawings of insects.

Isaak Saal after Andreas Stech
Species from the pea family, 1678
paper, copper engraving (printing process) 383 x 222 mm
upper right : 22
Madrid, Biblioteca Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, inv./ 751 (ref. no.) 695704000001 (barcode)

Isaak Saal after Andreas Stech
Johannes Hevelius and his wife Katherine with a great Octant, 1673
paper, copper engraving (printing process) 384 x 233 mm
lower center : Fig. O.
Gdańsk, Biblioteka Gdańska PAN (Polska Akademia Nauk), inv./ Ta 2563 2°

Lambert Visscher after Andreas Stech
Frontispiece of Jacob Breyne's 'Plantarum Exoticarum' (1678), 1678
paper, copper engraving (printing process) 378 x 233 mm
upper center : JHWH (in hebreeuws)
Madrid, Biblioteca Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, inv./ 751 (ref. no.) 695704000001 (barcode)

Andreas Stech
The baptism of the eunuch (Acts 8:26-40), before 23 February1673
canvas, oil paint 300 x 145 cm
location unknown : A. Stech
Pelplin, Bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Pelplinie

Andreas Stech
Christ and the Canaanite woman, 1689-1696
canvas, oil paint 290 x 438 cm
Pelplin, Bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Pelplinie

Andreas Stech
The marriage-feast at Cana (John 2:1-11), 1689-1696
canvas, oil paint 290 x 308 cm
Pelplin, Bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Pelplinie

In 1671 Stech received a commission for the interior decoration of the Cistercian church of Pelplin [20-22]. The grisaille preparatory studies are kept in the museum in Danzig [23-24].12 As was customary with ecclesiastical commissions, Andreas Stech turned to Flemish art for inspiration.13

Andreas Stech
Christ and the Canaanite woman, 1689
paper, grisaille, oil paint 183 x 355 mm
Poznań, Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu, inv./ PTPN 1426

Andreas Stech
Christ washing the feet of Saint Peter (John 13:1-20), 1689
paper, grisaille, oil paint 237 x 360 mm
Poznań, Muzeum Narodowe w Poznaniu, inv./ PTPN 1427

Compared to Schultz and Stech the other portraitists lose in significance. Nevertheless, we should mention Bartholomäus Strobel (1591-after 1650) [25],14 an artist from Thorn who was active as a portraitist and church painter between 1639 and 1648,15 because he introduced his Dutch colleague Gillis Schagen (1616-1668) to King Ladislaus IV, for whom Schagen must have worked for a while [26].16

Bartholomäus Strobel
Portrait of Martin Opitz van Boberfeld (1597-1639), c. 1636-1637
canvas, oil paint 113.5 x 92.5 cm
on the back : R. 80
Gdańsk, Biblioteka Gdańska PAN (Polska Akademia Nauk), inv./ 2IV4435

possibly Gillis Schagen
Panoramic view of Elbing with a convoy of soldiers, first half 17th century
copper, oil paint 9.3 x 31.6 cm
Sotheby's (London (England)) 2004-07-06, nr. 440


1 [Van Leeuwen 2013] However, Daniel Schultz was not related to the Daniel Schultz, who died in 1646. Nor was he a member of a family of artists (Steinborn 2004, p. 232).

2 [Gerson 1942/1983] Bartsch 149; Holllstein 132. Cuny-Elberfeld 1915, with many illustrations of the work of D. Schultz. See also: Secker 1913A; Biermann 1914, fig. nos. 191 and 324; Drost 1938, pp. 131ff. [Van Leeuwen 2013] Sadly, the drawing has been lost since 1944.

3 [Van Leeuwen 2013] The attribution to Schultz is not completely undisputed; Teresa Grzybkowska attributes the painting to Andreas Stech (Grzybkowska 1973, pp. 42-44).

4 [Gerson 1942/1983] According to Drost the picture is dated 1664 (Drost 1938, pp. 131-132); at the Petersburg exhibition of 1908 (no. 243) the date was read as 1654 (Von Schmidt 1909, p. 184).

5 [Gerson 1942/1983] Secker 1913A, pp. 51-52 also discerns French influence, which is not clear to me.

6 [Van Leeuwen 2013] The traditional attribution to Daniel Schultz is overruled by the attribution to Andreas Stech and confirmed by the finding of Stech’s signature on the second version of the painting in the Museum of the History of the Sciences in Oxford (Grzybkowska 2012, pp. 289-290).

7 [Van Leeuwen 2013] The church of Saint-Germain-des-Près does not contain the mausoleum of Ladislaus IV, but of his brother John II Casimir (1609-1672), whose was portrayed several times by Schultz (see RKDimages 238425 and RKDimages 238429).

8 [Van Leeuwen 2020] In 2020 attributed to Cornlis Lelienbergh by Fred Meijer.

9 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations in Danzig 1919; Drost 1938, pp. 143-144; Abs 1937, p. 42.

10 [Gerson 1942/1983] Illustrations in Biermann 1914, nos. 184 and 182.

11 [Van Leeuwen 2013] Intended here is the portrait by Stech, not Schultz (RKDimages 231036; see note 3 above).

12 [Van Leeuwen 2013] Andreas Stech worked for many years for the cathedral of Pelplin (Bazylika katedralna Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny w Pelplinie). The first decoration pieces were made in the early 1670s. The last ones, executed between 1689 and 1696, served to decorate the cloister of the cathedral, then Cisterician church. As preparatory studies Stech painted small grisailles, of which at least four have survived (Grzybkowska 1973, pp. 50, 52-53, nos. 39-40, 44 and 46) evenly divided between the National Museums in Poznań and Gdańsk.

13 [Van Leeuwen 2013] The ‘Flemish inspiration’ may be visible in some of these compositions. The Baptism of the Eunuch (RKDimages 233947), however, shows knowledge of Rembrandt’s treatment of the subject (see also Grzybkowska 1973, p. 27).

14 [Gerson 1942/1983] On B. Strobel, whose style also underwent Dutch influence, see Scheyer 1932-1933. [Van Leeuwen 2013] According to M. Walicki, Strobel portrayed his sitters in the manner of Michiel van Mierevelt, but more specifically he imitated Jan van Ravesteyn, Dirck Santvoort and Nicolaes Eliasz. Pickenoy (Walicki 1949). Tylicki agrees entirely with Walicki and points out that the Portrait of Duke Ulrik of Denmark, painted by Strobel for Christian IV in 1633 (burnt in 1859 in Frederiksborg, but known from copies; see RKDimages 238371), was based in its unusual pose on figures in Dutch militia ('schutter') group portraits, which were then only rarely copied in prints. Tylicki concludes that Strobel must have seen them in person in Amsterdam, Haarlem or some other Dutch town (Tylicki 2000, vol. 1, p. 534). According to Ursula de Goede-Broug, Fred Meyer and Sabine Craft-Giepmans (RKD), however, Strobel’s portraits are related to the school of Cologne, among others to Gotthardt de Wedig. On the other hand, in general, portraits by Wedig are more stiff than those by Strobel.

15 [Van Leeuwen 2013] Paintings are now known from about 1620 on, the earliest work being a drawing dated 1613 in the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford (Tylicki 2000, vol. 2, p. 78, no. II.1.4; see also vol. 1, p. 532).

16 [Van Leeuwen 2013] Houbraken mentions a portrait of Stanislaus (read: Ladislaus) king of Poland, painted by Schagen in Elbing in 1637 (Hofstede de Groot 1921, p. 17). Gerson jumped to the conclusion that Schagen must have worked for the King for a while.

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